One of the trickiest parts of academic writing is mastering the black magic that is citations. With so many different citation styles for each discipline properly incorporating research can be a daunting task. Have no fear though, because the WC blog is here to help! For this post, we have created a handy-dandy quick check guide to citation styles featuring the three main ones used at Roanoke College: APA, Chicago Manual Style, and MLA. The information featured in this post can also be found, in more detail, in “A Writers Reference” the official writing handbook of Roanoke College, available for purchase in the bookstore. We hope you find this helpful! Happy Writing!
APA, which stands for American Psychological Association, is the style used most often by the social sciences. Because social science evidence relies on relevant and up-to-date research, dates are the most important component of this citation style. Below I have given the format and an example of both an in text and work cited APA citation. A full explanation and guide to the APA citation style begins on page 443 of “A Writers Reference”.
Format: Author of the source (year of publication)…..(rest of sentence)…..(page number).
Example from a “A Writers Reference” page 458: Yanovski and Yanovski (2002) reported that “the current state of the treatment for obesity is similar to the state of the treatment of hypertension several decades ago” (p. 600).
Work Cited for a bookwith one author:
Format: Authors last name, initial. (year of publication). Title. City of Publication, State:
Name of Publisher.
Example from “Writers Reference” page 464:
Egeland, J. (2008). A billion lives: An eyewitness report from the frontlines of humanity. New York, NY: Simon & Schuster.
Chicago Manual Style:
Chicago Manual Style, or CMS for short, is the style most often used by the Religion and Philosophy departments on campus. This style uses footnotes rather than in text citations. Below I have given the format and an example of both a foot note and work cited APA citation. A full explanation and guide to the Chicago Manual Style begins on page 498 of “A Writers Reference”.
Bottom of page: 1. Author, Title (City of Publication: Name of Publisher, Year of Publication), Page Number.
Example from “A Writers Reference” page 502.
Governor John Andrew was not allowed to recruit….but it was an open secret that Andrew’s agents were working far and wide.”1
- Peter Burchard, One Gallant Rush: Robert Gould Shaw and His Brave Black Regiment (New York: St. Martin’s, 1965), 85.
Work Cited for a book with one author:
Format: Author’s Last Name, Author’s First Name. Title of Book. City of Publication: Name of Publisher, Year of Publication.
Example from “A Writer’s Reference” page 512:
Woods, Mary N. Beyond the Architect’s Eye: Photographs and the American Built
Environment. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 2009.
The Modern Language Association or MLA style of citation is the style most often used by the English and Language departments and most often your simple, go-to citation style. This style emphasizes page numbers because it is often used to reference specific parts of literary texts. Below I have given an example of both an in text and work cited citation. A full explanation and guide to the MLA style begins on page 371 of “A Writer’s Reference”
Format: Sentence…..(page number).
Example from “A Writer’s Reference” page 375:
One popular monitoring method is keystroke logging, which is done by means….the programs can even scan for keywords tailored to individual companies (128-29).
Work Cited for a book with one author:
Format: Author’s Last Name, Author’s First Name. Title. City of Publication: Publisher, Date of Publication. Medium.
Example from “A Writer’s Reference” page 399:
Wood, James. How Fiction Works. New York: Farrar, 2008. Print.